@article{Othman_Kanazaki_Abd. Wahid_Mat_Mohd Jaafar_Wan Omar_Mansor_Dahalan_Mohd Nasir_Abdul-Latif_et al._2019, title={Aircraft Trajectory Optimization during Descent Using A Kriging-Model-Based-Genetic Algorithm}, volume={41}, url={https://jurnalmekanikal.utm.my/index.php/jurnalmekanikal/article/view/334}, abstractNote={A time-series flight trajectory technique was developed for use in a civil aircraft during descent. The three-degree-of-freedom (3-DoF) equations of motion were solved via time-series prediction of aerodynamic forces. In the present evaluation, the microburst effect during the descent was considered. The single-objective optimization problem, in which the cost function indicating the trajectory efficiency was minimized, was solved by means of a Kriging model based genetic algorithm (GA) which produces an efficient global optimization process. The optimal trajectory results were compared with those without the microburst condition during the descent. The minimization solution converged well in each case for both conditions plus the differences in flight profiles based on the trajectory history were smaller than those of the solutions before optimization. An analysis of variance and parallel coordinate plot were applied to acquire the quantitative information for the initial condition of descend. The results revealed that the aerodynamic control factors, such as elevators angle and angles of attack, were effective for the minimization of the cost function when microburst is in effective range. According to the visualization results, it was found that a higher airspeed and a larger aerodynamic control by initial elevator were effective for minimizing the cost function when microburst has appeared. It shows that the developed model produced efficient global optimization and can evaluate the aircraft trajectory under the descent situation successfully.}, number={2}, journal={Jurnal Mekanikal}, author={Othman, N. and Kanazaki, M. and Abd. Wahid, M. and Mat, S. and Mohd Jaafar, M.N. and Wan Omar, W.Z. and Mansor, S. and Dahalan, M.N. and Mohd Nasir, M.N. and Abdul-Latif, A. and et al.}, year={2019}, month={May} }