• Nurul Muthmainnah Mohd Noor Mechanical Engineering Studies, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Penang Branch, Permatang Pauh Campus, 13500, Permatang Pauh, Penang, Malaysia
  • Saiful Amirul Asyraf Mohd Halid Mechanical Engineering Studies, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Penang Branch, Permatang Pauh Campus, 13500, Permatang Pauh, Penang, Malaysia
  • Rohidatun Mahmod @Wahab Mechanical Engineering Studies, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Penang Branch, Permatang Pauh Campus, 13500, Permatang Pauh, Penang, Malaysia



Fuzzy PD controller, two-wheeled self-balancing, mobile robot, performance


Nowadays, the research on a two-wheeled self-balancing robot is an active area of research especially in terms of design as well as control to continue the innovation applications of robots in the future. Most of the two-wheeled self-balancing robots are designed based on an inverted pendulum system for stability and maneuverability. The aim of this paper is to propose the fuzzy PD controller to control and maintain its balance on the two wheels. A sensor of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was used as an input to evaluate and obtain the position and orientation of the robot. The control algorithms for the robot also are designed to keep the pendulum upright.  Then, the fuzzy PD concept was applied to correct the error between the desired set point and the actual tilt angle position to adjust the speed of the motor accordingly. The results obtained from this controller were capable of maintaining the balancing of the robot by using an experimental method of PID tuning. The prototype of the two-wheeled self-balancing robot was implemented with Arduino Uno and a fuzzy PD controller. However, the limitation of the project is the longer size and heavier weight of the robot are less stable, then a better controller is needed to balance the robot.


Wael, Y., Mohammed, A., Design and Implementation of an Experimental Seqway Model. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2009, 1107, p, 350 -354.

Shekhawat, A. S., Rohilla, Y., Design and Control of Two-wheeled Self-Balancing Robot using Arduino. International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC), Trichy, India, 2020, pp. 1025-1030

Juang, H. S., Lum, K. Y., Design and control of a two-wheel self-balancing robot using the arduino microcontroller board, 10th IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation (ICCA), Hangzhou, China, 2013, pp. 634-639.

D.P.V.J. Jayakody, & K.P.G.C. Sucharitharathna. Control Unit for a Self-Balancing Prototype. Global Journals of Research in Engineering, 19(J1), 2019, 7–12.

Celik, Y., Mahit, G., Designing an Object Tracker Self-Balancing Robot, Academic Platform Journal of Engineering and Science, 2018, 6-1, p. 124-133.

Velagić, J., Kovač, I., Panjević, A., and Osmanović, A., Design and Control of Two-Wheeled and Self-Balancing Mobile Robot, 2021 International Symposium ELMAR, Zadar, Croatia, 2021, pp. 77-82, doi: 10.1109/ELMAR52657.2021.9550938.

Park J.H., Cho B. K., Development of a self-balancing robot with a control moment gyroscope. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems. 2018, 15(2).

Franček, P., Jambrošić, K., Horvat, M., Planinec, V., The Performance of Inertial Measurement Unit Sensors on Various Hardware Platforms for Binaural Head-Tracking Applications. Sensors 2023, 23, 872.

Meghji, M., et al., An Algorithm for the Automatic Detection and Quantification of Athletes’ Change of Direction Incidents Using IMU Sensor Data, in IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 4518-4527, 15 June 15, 2019, doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2898449.

An W., and Li, Y., Simulation and control of a two-wheeled self-balancing robot, 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), Shenzhen, China, 2013, pp. 456-461

Vicky, M., Barokatun, H., Yun, T. K. P, Okcy, S., Design and Simulation of Two-Wheeled Balancing Mobile Robot with PID Controller, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation Technology Vol. 3, No. 1, April 2020, 12-19

Zahra, K. J., Hamed, K. S., A New Approach for Control of Two-wheeled Mobile Robot, Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering 6(2): 71-78, 2019

Quang, V. N., Chai, Y., Trong, T. N., The fuzzy-PID based-pitch angle controller for small-scale wind turbine, International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive System (IJPEDS), 2020, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 135~142.

Jamil, O., Jamil, M., Ayaz, Y., Ahmad, K., Modeling, control of a two-wheeled self-balancing robot, 2014 International Conference on Robotics and Emerging Allied Technologies in Engineering (iCREATE), Islamabad, Pakistan, 2014, pp. 191-199

Mai, T. A., Dang, T. S., Anisimov, D. N. and. Fedorova, E., Fuzzy-PID Controller for Two Wheels Balancing Robot Based on STM32 Microcontroller, 2019 International Conference on Engineering Technologies and Computer Science (EnT), Moscow, Russia, 2019, pp. 20-24

T. Liu, X. Wang, H. Zhou, X. Che, H. Liu, and Q. Wang, "Design and Control of a Two-wheeled Self-balancing Robot made in 3D Printing," 2018 Chinese Automation Congress (CAC), Xi'an, China, 2018, pp. 1211-1216,

Khan, H.; Khatoon, S.; Gaur, P.; Abbas, M.; Saleel, C.A.; Khan, S.A. Speed Control of Wheeled Mobile Robot by Nature-Inspired Social Spider Algorithm-Based PID Controller. Processes 2023, 11, 1202.

Gong, Y., X. Wu, X., Ma, H., Research on Control Strategy of Two-Wheeled Self-Balancing Robot, 2015 International Conference on Computer Science and Mechanical Automation (CSMA), Hangzhou, China, 2015, pp. 281-284.

Prakash, K., Thomas, K., Study of controllers for a two wheeled self-balancing robot, 2016 International Conference on Next Generation Intelligent Systems (ICNGIS), Kottayam, India, 2016, pp. 1-7

Ogata, K., Modern Control Engineering. 5th Edition, Pearson, Upper Saddle River.

Kim, S., Kwon, S. Dynamic modeling of a two-wheeled inverted pendulum balancing mobile robot. Int. J. Control Autom. Syst. 13, 926–933 (2015).

Hamza, M., Zaka-ur-Rehman, Zahid, Q., Tahir, F., and Khalid, Z., Real-Time Control of an Inverted Pendulum: A Comparative Study, 2011 Frontiers of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2011, pp. 183-188, doi: 10.1109/FIT.2011.41.

Jin S, Ou Y., A Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Learning Stable and Accurate Control from Demonstrations. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(24):5279

Junfeng, W., Wanying, Z., Shengda, W., A Two-Wheeled Self-Balancing Robot with the Fuzzy PD Control Method, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2012, vol. 2012. p. 1-13.

Bello, A., Olfe, K.S., Rodríguez, J., Ezquerro, J.M., and Lapuerta, V. Experimental verification and comparison of fuzzy and PID controllers for attitude control of nanosatellites, Advances in Space Research, Volume 71, Issue 9, 2023, Pages 3613-3630.

Barakat, M. Optimal design of fuzzy-PID controller for automatic generation control of multi-source interconnected power system. Neural Comput & Applic 34, 18859–18880 (2022).

Mohamed, N. M. A., Abdalaziz, A. A. A., Ahmed, A. A., and Ahmed, A. A. A., Implementation of a PID control system on microcontroller (DC motor case study),2017 International Conference on Communication, Control, Computing and Electronics Engineering (ICCCCEE), Khartoum, Sudan, 2017, pp. 1-5.




How to Cite

Mohd Noor, N. M., Mohd Halid, S. A. A., & Mahmod @Wahab, R. (2023). STUDY THE PERFORMANCE OF TWO-WHEELED BALANCING MOBILE ROBOT USING FUZZY PD CONTROLLER. Jurnal Mekanikal, 46(2), 164–174.