Estimation and Distribution of Exhaust Ship Emission from Marine Traffic in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore using Automatic Identification System (AIS) Data


  • Hendra Saputra Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor
  • Adi Maimun Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor
  • Jaswar Koto Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor


Ship emissions, Distribution of emissions, AIS, MEET methodology, Gaussian Puff Model, programming, Straits of Malacca and Singapore


Global warming and air pollution have become one of the important issues to the entire world community. Exhaust emissions from ships has been contributing to the health problems and environmental damage. This study focuses on the Strait of Malacca area because it is one of the world’s most congested straits used for international shipping where located on the border among three countries of Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. The study seeks to estimate of the exhaust emission and to know the concentration of emission to several areas around. This is accomplished by evaluating the density of shipping lanes in the Straits of Malacca by using the data which obtained by Automatic Identification System (AIS). MEET methodology is used to estimate emissions from ships and Gaussian Puff Model used to estimates the concentration in several areas around the Strait. The results show 813 total number of ships through the Strait of Malacca on September 2, 2011 at 07.00 am-08.00 am produces exhaust emission for NOx, CO, CO2, VOC, PM and SOx are about 13715.51 g/second, 25461.525 g/second, 11092.99 g/second, 5858.216 g/second, 415.304 g/second and 6921.746 g/second, respectively. The ships under the Singapore flag contribute approximately 22.72% of total emissions in the Strait of Malacca followed by Panama and Liberia flag approximately 21.32%, 12.89%, respectively. Ships under Malaysia and Indonesia rank of sixth and seventh respectively of the emission rates. The most high-risk areas which affected by the emissions are Sentosa Island (Singapore), Port of Pasir Gudang (Malaysia) and Jurong Island (Singapore) with approximately contaminated about 47.33%, 21.68% and 17.69%, respectively of total emission and other areas around the Strait represent below 1%.


Allen, C. T., G. S. Young, and S. E. Haupt. (2006). Improving Pollutant Source Characterization by Optimizing Meteorological Data with a Genetic Algorithm, Submitted to Atmos. Environ.

Arndt R.L., Carmichael G.R., Streets D.G. and Bhatti N. 1996. Sulfur dioxide emissions and sectorial contributions to sulfur deposition in Asia. Atmospheric Environment 31, 1553-1572.

Bhatti N., Streets D.G. and Foe11 W.K. 1992.Acid rain in Asia. Environmental Management 16, 541-562.EPA. 1985. Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors: Volume II: Mobile Sources - Vessels. AP-42, Fourth Edition, September 1985.

Eyring, Veronika.,S.A.Isaksen, Ivar., Berntsen, Terje., J.Collins, William., et al. 2010. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Shipping. Atmospheric Environment44(2010)4735–4771.

IMO (International Maritime Organization).1998. IMO Resolution MSC.74 (69). "Recommendation on Performance Standards for A Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS)â€.

Jalkanen, J.-P., Johansson, L., Kukkonen, J., Brink, A. ., Kalli, J., Stipa, T. 2011. Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions fo particulate matter and carbon monoxide. Atmos.Chem.Phys.Discuss., 11, 22129–22172.

Jaswar, Y.Ikeda. (2002). A feasibility Study on a Podded Propulsion LNG Tanker in Arun, Indonesia-Osaka, Japan, Proceeding ISOPE, 12.

Long, K.J., S.E. Haupt, G.S. Young, and C.T. Allen, 2007: Characterizing Contaminant Source and Meteorological Forcing using Data Assimilation with a Genetic Algorithm, Fifth Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications to Environmental Science at AMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX, Jan. 16, Paper number 4.3.

Lucialli, P., Ugolini, P., Pollini, E., Harbur of Ravenna: The Contribution of Harbour Traffic to Air Quality. Atmos. Environ., vol. 41, pp. 6421-6431, 2007.

Matthias, Volker.,Bewersdorff, Ines., Aulinger, Armin., Quante, Markus. 2010. The contribution of ship emissions to air pollution in the North Sea regions. Environmental Pollution 158 (2010) 2241 – 2250.

Meyer, D.P., Maes, F., Volckaert, A., Emission from international shipping in the Belgian part of the North sea and the Belgian seaports, J. Atmos.Environ., vol 42, pp. 196-206, 2007.

Mihmanli, Ege. 2011. Research Report : Combating Piracy in the Strait of Malacca. MUNDP 2011 – Asia and the Pacific.

Perez, M., Chang, R., Billings, R., Kosub, T.L.,. 2009. Automatic Identification System (AIS) data use in marine vessel emission estimation. 18th Annual International Emission Inventory Conference.

Pitana, Trika., Kobayashi, Eiichi., Wakabayashi, Nobukazu. (2010). Estimation of Exhaust Emissions of Marine Traffic Using Automatic Identification System Data (Case Study: Madura Strait Area, Indonesia). OCEANS 2010 IEEE – Sydney, E-ISBN : 978-1-4244-5222-4, Print ISBN: 978-1-4244- 5221-7.

Streets, D.G., Carmichael, G.R., Arndt, R.L., .1997. Sulfur dioxide emissions and sulfur deposition from international shipping in Asian waters. Atmospheric Environment 31,1573-1582.

Trozzi C. (2010). Update of Emission Estimate Methodology for Maritime Navigation, Techne Consulting report ETC.EF.10 DD, May 2010.

Turner, D. (1970). Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates (Revised). US EPA: Office of Air Programs, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Pub. No. AP-26.

UNECE/EMEP. (2002). Group 8: Other Mobile Sources and Machinery, in EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook-third ed., October 2002 Update (Technical Report no. 30).

UNCTAD. 2010. Review of Maritime transport 2010. New York and Geneva: The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Secretary.

USEPA (1995). User’s guide for the Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) Dispersion Models. US EPA: Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Emissions, Monitoring, and Analysis Division, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Vol. 2,EPA-454/B-95-003b.

Wang, C., Callahan, J., Corbett, J.J.,. 2007. Geospatial Modeling of Ship Traffic and Air Emissions, Proceeding of ESRI International Conference.




How to Cite

Saputra, H., Maimun, A., & Koto, J. (2018). Estimation and Distribution of Exhaust Ship Emission from Marine Traffic in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore using Automatic Identification System (AIS) Data. Jurnal Mekanikal, 36(2). Retrieved from




Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.